Tuesday, June 18, 2013


1.      Allegory
1.1.   method – when (not) applied II:25 [199-200] (in prophecy; use of linguistic  hints) II:43 [238-40] II:47 [247-9] in using text for mitzvos – midrashim III:43 [353-4]
1.2.   distinguished from metaphor
2.      Anthropomorphism
2.1.   explanation of terms seeming to imply I:1-16,18-30,32-48,65-7,70
2.2.   chazal against  (chazal use anthropomorphic language for G-d just as verses do, relying on their general rejection of anthropomorphism for the reader not to take their words literally) I:46 [59-63]
3.      Aristotle
3.1.   exposition - Aristotle below the sphere of the moon: “for although one substance is common to all, substance without form is in reality impossible, just as the physical form of these transient beings cannot exist without substance.” I:72 [114]  II: Intro [149] II:3-4 [156-8] (necessity of nature) II:13 [173] II:19 [184-9] (arguments for eternity) II:14 [174-6] (aware that his arguments did not demonstrate eternity) II:15 [176-8] (against chance and against design/Creator) II:20 [189-90] (purpose of/in creation) III:8[272-4]
3.2.   opposition - I:69 [103-4] I:71 [111-2] II: Intro [145] II:6 [162] II:13 [171-3] II:16 [178] II:21-4 [190-9] (eternity implies no miracles, so must be rejected) II:25 [199-200] II:29 [210-1] (form independent of matter) III:8 [261] (on providence) III:17 [282-3]
4.      Angels
4.1.   may be referred to by “elokim” I:2 [14] I:27 [36]
4.2.   incorporeal, = intelligences I:43 [57-8] I:49 [65-6] II:6 [160] Incorporeal beings act continuously; effects are determined by the readiness of matter to receive the forms II;12 [168-71]
4.3.   = nature II:6-7 [160-2] (both specific) [161] free will [162-3]
the word “angel” can refer to a prophet II:34 [223] Angels on Jacob’s ladder = prophets I:15 [26]
4.4.   since prophecy is necessary for the Law, and prophecy is received through angels, so belief in angels is necessary for the Law, so the keruvim!! {even though Moshe’s prophecy was not through an angel!?} III:45 [356]
5.      Attributes of G-d
5.1.   types I:52 [69-72]
5.2.   inadmissible - (violates unity) I:51-3 [68-74] (psychological) I:54 [75-8] (passivity = being affected, includes emotions) I:55 [78-9] Category mistake of attributes with respect to G-d I:58 [83]
5.3.   must prove inadmissible I: 55 [78] I:60 [87-9]
5.4.   for the public we admit attributes that they take to be necessary for perfection I:26 [35] I:35 [49-50] I:46 [59-61] I:47 [63-4] (same for angels) I:49 [65-7]
5.5.   refer to actions I:52 [72] I:54 [75-8]
5.6.   negative I:57-60 [80-9] (all attributes are either actions or negative) I:58 [83]
6.       Chazal
fallibility II:8 [163] still appropriate to interpret their words as true insofar as possible) III:14 [278-9] Statements of chazal that contradict his theories (treated with respect and as source for valid ideas) II:26 [201] “I am unable to explain it sufficiently”
7.      Creation
7.1.   purpose of II:11 [167-8] III:13 [272-7] (agency implies purpose, but see 276 which attributes creation to Will and no other object = purpose, and see 308 that all G-d’s action are for (a) purpose(s)) [272] (purpose of A implies an agent that made A, so anything not made has no purpose, so G-d has no purpose, and for Aristotle the universe as a whole has no purpose) [272] (believers in creation must say that Will/Wisdom created the universe and stop there in inquiring for the purpose) [274,277] (Will created, so each thing exists for its own sake {except some that exist for others}) [274-5] (man is not the purpose of the whole creation, just of what is below the moon) [273-4,277-9] (“G-d created A to do X” does not mean that doing X is A’s purpose, but only that A was created in such a way that it would do X) [275-6] (superior is not created for the sake of inferior, so spheres etc not created for man) [276-7] the whole creation is the result of G-d’s wisdom to produce the existence of everything possible since existence is good but not all for man, we do not comprehend His wisdom and therefore wisdom does not imply eternity III: 25 [308-9]
7.2.   Torah begins with the creation = masseh bereishis since it is prerequisite for understanding metaphysics Introduction
7.3.   impossible for man to fully understand Introductionw
7.4.   (different prime matter for heaven and earth) II:26 [201]
7.5.   opinions concerning II:13 [171-3]
7.6.   time is created II:13 [171-2] (nothing really exists before the creation) II:13 [171]
7.7.   Plato’s theory of II:13 [172] II:25 [199-200]
7.8.   (arguments show only possibility of) II:16 [178] II:17-8 [181-3]
7.9.   (reasons for superiority over eternity by comparing both with what is known from nature) II:19 [184-9] (especially the heavens) [188-9] II:21-4 [190-9] (eternity/necessity cannot explain the heavens; design makes explanation possible) [193-4] (weight of objections) [195]
7.10.                    (Biblical account not entirely literal, for literal understanding of all of it might lead to corrupt ideas and false opinions about G-d or to reject Torah altogether) II:29 [211] (literal leads to eternity) III:29 [319] II:30 [212-18]
7.10.1.  details of creation taken non-literally II:30 [212-18] – “et” = together with {heavens and earth all their contents}, simultaneous creation of heaven and earth, lights created on first day, “earth” = everything below the sphere of the moon [? – is it really non-literal?], “caslling a name” = distinguishing things that satisfy a common noun [?], chosech = fire [?], chosech above the air [?], “mayim” = proto-water out of which water below and above and rakia are made, “good” = permanent, regular settled order [?], all of chapter 2 took place during the six days, He tok him (Adam) and placed him – refers to position and rank, not location, “yatzar” = to make a form (= create the abstract form or in in-form something?) [?]
7.11.                    finished in six days – chapter 2 takes place during the six days II:30 [215] Laws of nature do not apply during the six days of creation I:67 [99] II:30 [216] Shabbos = no new creation I:67 [99-100]
8.      Divine providence
8.1.   control/causation (over whole earth) I:44 [58]
8.2.   protection I:23 [33]
8.3.   providence – various theories III:17-8 [282-90]
8.3.1.      all is accident and chance – refuted by Aristotle [282]
8.3.2.      Aristotle – providence is only above the moon where things are constant – below is chance [282-3]
8.3.3.      everything is due to providence = predestination – implies divine injustice [283-4]
8.3.4.      man has free will and providence affects all events and there is no injustice in providence – implies absurdities (and foreknowledge contradicts free will!)
8.3.5.      the Torah – (1) Prophets and sages; (2) later authors; (3) Rambam’s view free will, no injustice – all evils are punishment for sin and all pleasures are reward for mitzvah – no suffering in this world for reward in the next, [285]  reward/punishment for actions which logic show to be right/wrong, even if not commanded [286] [286-8] (explanation of how providence works based on Rambam’s  understanding of prophetic works) individual providence below the moon only for humans – implied by reward and punishment, mediated by Divine intellectual influence to those who possess intellect, for other individuals agrees with Aristotle, no “special divine Will” for individual events of non-humans {perhaps because there is no aspect of justice in what happens to them – this would have no implications about Divine control of those events??}, proved by Biblical denials of equality between people and animals, the ship goes down by chance but it is not chance who is on board, no divine providence for animals justifies our killing them for our use, providing for animals = providence for the species and not for its individuals {but Species have no external existence – they are only conceptual III:18 [289]}, principle lesson is that “management”, “knowledge” “intention” etc. has no common meaning between human and Divine III: 23 [303]      providence as protection III:18 [289-90] source in divine influence therefore varies as possession of intellect [289] and varies as goodness [289] protection is absolute [290]
8.3.6.      petition in order to impress divine providence III:36 [331-2]
8.4.   Permissible to kill animals since they have no intellect and hence are not under individual Divine providence III:17 [287]

9.      Eternity of the world
9.1.   statement of positions II:13 [171-3]
9.2.   past [Aristotle] I:71 [111] (arguments for) II:14 [174-6] (refutation of arguments) II:18 [181-3] II:30 [212]  (“admissible” = possible) II:16 [178]
9.3.   (argument for depends upon assumption of constant laws of nature) II:17 [178-81]
9.4.   future (possible) II:27 [201-2] (Solomon believed, and is correct) II:28 [202-4]
10.  Evil
10.1.                    nature – privation I:22 [32] III:10 [266-7] types (minority of existence) III:12 [267-72]
10.2.                    G-d’s creation of……..(only the end of the sequence matters for the judgment of justice) III:19 [290-1]
10.3.                    all evils are punishment for sin and all pleasures are reward for mitzvah III:17 [285] divine providence is perfect protection from evil III:51 [389]
11.  Free will
11.1.                    nature
11.2.                    existence obvious I:51 [70]
11.3.                    who possesses – man has free will (contrast animals that have only will) II:16 II:48 [249] III:17 [282-8] Intelligences, angels II:7 [168-9]
11.4.                    relation to G-d’s providence – view of prophets and sages - free will, no injustice – all evils are punishment for sin and all pleasures are reward for mitzvah – no suffering in this world for reward in the next, III:17 [285] 
12.  G-d
12.1.                    no relation to any creature, hence no similarity to any creature, hence words that are used for creatures and for G-d are homonyms [even “existence” and “unity”] I:56-7 [79-81] I:57 [80-1] see also Attributes of G-d
12.2.                    impossible to understand how He moves the world I:72 [119]
12.3.                    unity I:58 [81-3]
12.4.                    absolute independent existence, implies unity II:1 [152-3]
12.5.                    will or wisdom I:69 [104] II:18 [183] III:13 [272-7] (will = for no purpose) III:26 [310]
12.6.                    first cause I:69 [102-5] (through intermediaries – including man’s free will; includes [all?] natural events) II:48 [249-50]
12.7.                    nature = His works, so “He did” may describe natural effect I:66 [98-9]
12.8.                    “do” = oseh implies pre-existing materials and existing result; “bara” = create may be either without pre-existing materials [as in the creation of the universe] or without existing result [as in privations like darkness and evil] so all His actions/creations are perfectly good III:10 [265-6]
12.9.                    we do not ascribe doing what is impossible, including making another like himself or changing, corporifying or annihilating Himself III:15 [279]
12.10.                all His actions are good = successfully producing an important purpose III:25 [307-8] the whole creation is the result of G-d’s wisdom [308-9]
12.11.                omniscience – doubted because of evil III:16 [280-2] III:19 [290-2] the nature of His knowledge III:20-1 [292-6] does not imply plurality [292] unchanging (foresees the future) [292-3] includes what is non-existent and the infinite [293-4] philosophers objections based on false assumption that His knowledge is like ours when in fact his knowledge is identical to His essence and unknowable (and yet we day it is one, unchanging contains non-existent and infinite etc – unless these descriptions are meant negatively) [293-4] He knows as Creator via knowledge of His essence (knowledge of produces vs. knowledge of observer of mechanism) [293, 296] His knowledge does not change the character of possibility for future events [294]
12.12.                providence – see Divine Providence
12.13.                love of G-d produced by knowledge of the truths of the Law including true knowledge of His existence III:52 [392 – compare/contrast yesodie haTorah
12.14.                sustains the creation I:69 [105] I:70 [105-7]
12.15.                III:53 [392-3]: chesed = no claim at all on the benefit; tzedaka = claim via good character of giver; mishpat = claim via zechus/din/what the recipient deserves (including punishment)
12.16.                Incorporeality
12.16.1.                      required for unity I:1 [13]
12.16.2.                      “Show me Your glory” = Yourself I:64 [96]
12.16.3.                      Category mistake of attributes with respect to G-d I:58 [83]
12.17.                names of Names of G-d I:61 [89-91] I:63 [93-5]
12.17.1.                      elokim = judge I:2 [14] II:30 [218]
13.  Heavens
13.1.                    unchanging I:11 [24] (opinions) II:13 [171-3]
13.2.                    general description I:72 [113-9] II:4-5 [156-60] (and relation to the earth) II:10 [164-6] II:11 [167-8] (size) III:13 [277-9]
14.  Intellect
14.1.                    essence/form of man I:1 [13-14], I:7 [20] I:70 [106]
14.2.                    limits of ability (due to connection to physical) I:31-2 [40-3]
14.3.                    relation to body I:72 [119]
14.4.                    source in the active intellect I:68 [100-2] II:4 [158] II:37 [227-9]
14.5.                    the active intellect is the link between man and G-d III:51 [385-6]
14.6.                    If the active intellect reaches only the logical faculty and not the imaginative, the result is wisdom; if it reaches only the imaginative and not the logical the result is statesmen, lawgivers, diviners, charmers and true dreams II:37-8 [228-30]
15.  Knowledge of G-d
15.1.                    Achieved via analysis of nature I:19 [29] I:34 [45-6] I;38 [54] I:55 [78]  I:70 [107]
15.2.                    via knowledge of attributes of action I:54 [75-8]
15.3.                    via negative attributes I:58-60 [81-89]
16.  man
16.1.                    free will (contrast animals that have only will) II:48 [249] III:17 [282-8]
16.2.                    naturally social II:39 [232] III:27 [313]
16.3.                    made in form and likeness of G-d due to intellect I:1 [14], I:2 [15] III:8 [261]
16.4.                    microcosm of the universe because of his intellect I:73 [117-9]
16.5.                    most compound/complex being, hence most individual variation II:40 [232-3]
16.6.                    failures due to his matter; merits due to his form III:8 [261-4] (material part blocks perception of abstract ideal) III:9 [264-5] III:12 [268-9]
16.7.                    goal/highest success = knowledge of G-d, angels and the rest of creation according to his capacity = being together with G-d III:8 [261-4] (perfection of soul = knowledge of all that is capable of being known and that does not include any action) III:27 [312-3] III:51 [384-6] even one who possesses knowledge of G-d must constantly focus consciously on G-d – if he diverts his focus he loses Divine protection but if he maintains the focus his protection is absolute III:51 [386-7, 388-90 – compare 285, 300] order of development: focus during shema and prayer; when alone; when interacting with others III:51 [387-8] we should be conscious that we are always in the presence of the king (= active intellect which is the link between us and G-d) III:52 [391-2] Man’s obligation is to be like G-d I:54 [78]
16.8.                    III:54 [393-7: chochma = i) knowledge of truths that lead to [and include] knowledge of G-d, ii) workmanship, iii) moral principles, iv) cunning; not= truths received by tradition – knowledge of the Law not= chochma, but the right order is to learn them by tradition first and learn to prove them later; Moses was the wisest of all men [Solomon only wiser than those in his generation]; four recognized perfections: possessions, bodily, moral [principles, knowledge of G-d – first three are external [in different senses]; [moral principles not the goal since they are for helping others and that presupposes some other ultimate purpose]; prophets agree with philosophers on this; verse in Jer. finishes that G-d desires that we perform the actions that He performs and loves
16.9.                    inter-personal evils due to ignorance (Plato) III:11 [267]
16.10.                Satan has no power over his nefesh III:22 [298]
17.  miracles
17.1.                     (only temporary changes in nature) II:29 [210] III:50 [382]
17.2.                    (cannot be explained figuratively) II:25 [199-201]
17.3.                     (unique miracles of Moses) II35 [224] Not all Israel saw the sun stopped by Joshua [meaning that although they saw the sun stop, they did not see that Joshua stopped it?] II:35 [224]
17.4.                    (the nature of man is never changed by miracle) III:32 [325]
18.  Metaphor
18.1.                    method – when applied
18.2.                    distinguished from allegory
18.3.                    examples I:54 [95-6]
19.  non-literal interpretation – principles –
19.1.                    instruction in theology via allegories and parables due to lack of fixed method, sometimes the lesson is only part of the allegory and sometimes divided between several allegories, Introduction [   ]
19.2.                    requires some explicit use of the non-literal meaning in some Biblical text I:1-49 passim
20.  Objectivity [mussar]
20.1.                    desires make objectivity impossible I:2 [15] I:5 [18-9] I:34 [47] II:23 [195] (bodily pleasures prevent prophecy) II:36 [226-7] III:8 [261-4] III:33 [327] (bodily desires prevent love/attachment of G-f) III:51 [390]
20.2.                    factors in opposition of I:31 [41] I:34 [47]
21.  Plato
21.1.                    theory of creation II:13 [172] II:25 [199-200]
22.  Proof
22.1.                    types
22.2.                    reliability – absolute I:31 [41] (implied superior to prophecy) II:16 [178] (demonstrative proof would require giving up Creation; but there is no such proof) II:23,25 [195],[200]
22.3.                    need to prove even obvious propositions I:51 [58-9]
22.4.                    necessary for real knowledge I:55 [78-9]
22.5.                    what is known by proof is equal to revelation II:33 [222] [[BUT note “…in this voice they perceived the first two commandments…[but not] in the same degree and Moses did.” unprovable – aspects of G-d’s knowledge III:21[296]
22.6.                    a miracle cannot prove that which is impossible III:24 [304]
23.  Proofs of G-d’s existence
23.1.                    methodology, via analysis of nature I:34 [45-6] I:70 [107]
23.2.                    via dilemma argument based on false assumption of eternity I:71 [111] II: Intro [145] II:1 [153] II:2 [154-5]
23.3.                    Argument from design III:19 [291-2]
24.  Prophecy
24.1.                    varieties of II:44-5 [240-5]
24.2.                    various opinions of – parallel to views on creation/eternity [?] II:32  [219-21]
24.3.                    absolute certainty of reality – compared to the certainty of perception and logic learned from Akeda III:24 [306]
24.4.                    G-d or angel speaking only in dream or vision II:40 [235] (hence whole sequence of events only in dream or vision II:42 [237-8] (events reported in prophecy concerning the prophet himself generally take place in dream/vision) II:46 [245-7]
24.5.                    provides knowledge beyond the natural II:38 [230]
24.6.                    requires courage and intuition in great measure II:38 [229]
24.7.                    requires control/suppression of bodily pleasures II:36 [226-7]
24.8.                    nature – through an angel I:37 [53] II:34 [223], active intellect + faculty of imagination (natural strength + training) II:36 [225-7]
24.9.                    language of (metaphorical/allegorical) II:29 [204-12] (including exaggeration, even in Chumash) II:47 [247-9] (according to the speech of each prophet) [204] Interpretation of prophetic text is correct just in case it was the intention of the prophet III:4 [257] (no prophecy of the end of the world) [204-10]
24.10.                uniqueness of Moshe I:37 [53] II:33 [221-3] (and uniqueness of Moses’ miracles) II:35 [223-4] II:36 [227] (only prophecy of Moshe reveals commandments – only he commanded others in G-d’s name) II:39 [231-2]
24.11.                Sinai – variety of perceptions with minority receiving real prophecy II:32 [221] only Moses heard the words – the people heard the voice/sound but not words II:33 [222-3] [[BUT see III:24 [305] below under “Trials”]], what is known by proof is equal to revelation II:33 [222] [[BUT note “…in this voice they perceived the first two commandments…[but not] in the same degree and Moses did.”
24.12.                necessary precondition for mitzvos/Law III:44 [355]
24.13.                III:51 [385]: “There are some who direct all their mind toward the attainment of perfection in Metaphysics, devote themselves entirely to God, exclude from their thought every other thing, and employ all their intellectual faculties in the study of the Universe, in order to derive therefrom a proof for the existence of God, and to learn in every possible way how God rules all things; they form the class of those who have entered the palace, namely, the class of prophets” [??]
25.  Possibility and impossibility
26.  Reasons for commandments
26.1.                    general principles - (correct beliefs and physical well-being) II:31 [219] II:40 [232-4] III:27 [312-3] (balanced – natural for persons of good character) II:39 [231-2] (every commandment has a reason though some are unknown) III:26 [310] (against those who say that if it has a reason then it is not from G-d since He is above all reason) III:31 [321-2] (to give reason = to show consequences for true belief or actions that improve society) III:28 [314] Law does not take into account exceptional circumstances III:34 [328-9] laws between man and G-d also affect other men but only after a long process III:35 [331] only showing purpose for law as in verses, not in Torah she baal peh III:41 [344] mitzvah that had meaning in specific historical circumstances are made permanent in order to recall those events in later times {and this might be a reason why sacrifices will be done even in the future when no one worships idols} III:46 [361] the Law uses safeguards III:48 [372] reasons only for general rules – details (e.g. of sacrifices) have no purpose (other than man’s obedience) III:26 [311-2]
26.2.                    threats concerning idolatry opposite of what priests of idolatry promised III:30 [321] III:37 [336-7] Severity of idolatry I:36 [50-2]
26.3.                    only gradual changes possible so impossible to abandon sacrifices entirely but they are very limited and downgraded by the prophets III:32 [322-6] (G-d does not change the nature of man in order to make actions possible [323-5]
26.4.                    reduce desires, personal decency III:33 [327-8]
26.5.                    killing animal that has killed a person or involved in immorality is a fine for the owner III:40 [342]
26.6.                    red heifer rules designed to find the killer III:40 [343]
26.7.                    severity of punishment according to greatness of the sin, frequency, amount of temptation, ease of doing sin secretly III:41 [345]
26.8.                    rules for zaken mamre and wrong psak {need clarification} III:41 [348]
26.9.                    death for any transgression does as a demonstration of unbelief III:41 [348-9]
26.10.                our object is to lead mankind to the service of G-d and to a good social order III:41 [350]
26.11.                explanation of Sabbath and holidays starts with physical and social benefits and only then to symbolism III:43 [352-3] the Law follows nature and brings it to perfection [352] the Sages [sometimes] use the text as poetry to express their own ideas – they are not interpreting the text – so midrashim not to be taken as interpretations III:43 [353-4]
26.12.                Since prophecy is necessary for the Law, and prophecy is received through angels, so belief in angels is necessary for the Law, so the keruvim!! {even though Moshe’s prophecy was not through an angel!?} III:45 [356]
26.13.                has no reason for table and bread in mikdash III:45 [356] and no reason for wine offering III:46 [366] and purification procedure from leprosy III:47 [370]
26.14.                the greater the sin the lower the species from which the sacrifice is brought III:46 [363]
26.15.                congregational sin offerings imply that we, our children and our children’s children owe atonement for our sin III:46 [364]
26.16.                the easier the diffusion of the uncleanness the harder and slower its purification III:47 [368]
26.17.                forbidden food is unhealthy III:48 [370] simanim are only signs of what is permitted, not the reason; forbidden to torture {even psychologically!} animals, these rules to produce kindness in people III:48 [371]
26.18.                circumcision reduces sexual pleasure III:48 [378-9]
26.19.                kesuba is like pay of harlot or hired servant III:48 [374-5]
26.20.                most of the mitzvos whose reasons are unknown were against idolatry whose past details are unknown to us III:49 [380]
26.21.                correct beliefs (theology only in general terms, to be expanded via knowledge of other science {implied in commandment to love G-d} and detailed beliefs that lead to good social relations),  III:28 [313-5]
26.22.                love and fear is the entire purpose of service/commandments III:29 [317]
27.  Scientific method
27.1.                    nature – simplicity etc II:9 [164] II:11 [167] (balance of evidence for and against) II:22 [194] II:24 [198] (kinematics vs. dynamics) II:38 [230]
27.1.1.  order of investigation Intro [4] I:5 [18] I:33-4 [43-9]
27.1.2.  character of investigator  – caution I:5 [18-9], restriction to appropriate subjects I:21 [30-1]
27.2.                    reliability
28.  Soul
28.1.                    relation to intellect
28.2.                    after death I:40-1 [55-6] I:70 [106]
29.  Subjects to be hidden 
29.1.                    includes natural science Intro [3], I:17 [27]
29.2.                    “secrets of the Law” (theological topics, “metaphysics”) I:33 [44] I:35 [49] I:62 [93] (revelation at Sinai one of the secrets) II:33 [223] (Incorporeality of G-d) II:47 [249] (account of the chariot) III:Introduction [251]
29.3.                    reason to be hidden
30.   “The Torah speaks in man’s language” I:26 [35] I:53 [73]
31.  Wisdom
31.1.                    value I:30 [39-40] I:42 [57]

Miscellaneous topics
Emes/sheker vs. /tov/ra I:2 [14-6]I:6 [19]

Male/female = form/matter I:17 [27]

Comparisons to Ramchal - superior value of hidden meaning Intro [6], justification for revealing: “time to do for Hashem” and pure motivation Intro [9], impossible to understand how G-d moves the world I:72 [119] prophecy is the highest human achievement II:36 [225] G-d does only good III:10

Onkelos method I:21 [31-2], I:27 [35-7], I:28 [38] I:48 [64-5] I:67 [98-9] II:33 [222-3]

Atheism I:36 not as bad as idol worship – only latter must be killed since they may mislead others III:51 [384]

Belief requires understanding I:50-1 [67-9]

Moses greatest of the wise, prays for guidance to govern I:54 [75-8] II:28 [204]

Knower = knowing = known even for people I:68 [100-2]

Knowledge of philosophy and science lost from Jewish People I:71 [107-8] II:11 [168] III: Introduction (account of chariot entirely Rambam’s own ideas) III: Introduction (scientific/astronomical knowledge – therefore appropriate to accept knowledge from others;

Text of prayers is source for positions of chazal II:5 [159]

The number four II:10 [166]

All languages conventional II:30 [218]

The nature of imagination II:36 [225-7]

The nature of possibility and Rambam does not know whether imagining establishes possibility III:15 [279]

“Thoughts of sin are worse than sin” because the thought contaminates the greatest part of the person, and similarly for low speach III:8 [263]

Holiness of Hebrew = no words for private parts/actions III:8 [264] III:48 [374]

Species have no external existence – they are only conceptual III:18 [289]

Objection: “G-d knows since He created the eye He will see etc.” implies that G-d must be physical. Rambam’s answer: creating the eye implies that He understands sight implies that He has all the knowledge that sight can provide III:19 [291]

The book of Job III:22-3 [296-303] Introduction is certainly a fiction [296] place of Satan is below, unlike other angels [297] Job and friends thought G-d and not Satan was the source of his suffering, wisdom is not ascribed to Job [297] order of suffering according to estimation of common man and no one can withstand too much bodily suffering [297] Satan = yetzer hara = malach hamves, many verses concerning Satan {perhaps Satan = matter hence vs. intellect = nefesh = form} [298-9] the key lesson: “As soon as he had acquired a true knowledge of God, he confessed that there is undoubtedly true felicity in the knowledge of God; it is attained by all who acquire that knowledge, and no earthly trouble can disturb it. So long as job's knowledge of God was based on tradition and communication, and not on research, he believed that such imaginary good as is possessed in health, riches, and children, was the utmost that men can attain: this was the reason why he was in perplexity” [300-1] opinions of the three friends = main positions concerning providence [301-2] the answer in the book is in the speech of Elihu in the metaphor of the angel’s intercession [302] also account of prophecy and learning through nature [302-3] principle lesson is that “management”, “knowledge” “intention” etc. has no common meaning between human and Divine [303]

Trials III:24 [304-7] purpose to teach man what to do or to believe [304] “to know” = “to make known” [304] a miracle cannot prove that which is impossible [304] revelation at Sinai prevents later false prophets since If I had come as a messenger as you desired, and had told you that which had been said unto me and which you had not heard, you would perhaps consider as true what another might tell you in opposition to that which you heard from me. But it is different now, as you have heard it in the midst of the great sight."

Darkei haemori III:37 [334-5]

Mercy on sinners is cruelty to all creatures III:39 [341]

The words of the Law do not become unclean III:47 [369]

Every detail of the narratives of the Law is necessary to establish true belief or regulate actions and order society III:50 [380-4]
Details give credibility to narratives
War of four kings shows providence for G-d’s servant
List of families of Seir to identify Amelek
Kings of Edom to illustrate the usefulness of our law not to accept foreigners as kings
Jericho should not be rebuilt so that the vertical submersion of the walls should be permanent evidence that it was not conquered naturally

Miriam achieved knowledge and love of G-d III:51 [391]